Beak giant Titanic sank slowly into the black waters of the Atlantic . At the sound of splintering hull passengers gathered on deck began to frantically run towards floating upward stern. But still wanted to save a few seconds of life. The survivors in lifeboats looked on in horror . They also knew how to end the musicians played the song ” Nearer , My God , to Thee.”
In January of 1912 years of Greenland glacier ” spit out ” an iceberg which fell with a tremendous bang for the Labrador Sea , and then drifted north Atlantic. Began to melt unevenly there and as a result changed its center of gravity. Turned to reveal a submarine , the transparent part of the , the color of the surrounding sea water. Apr. 14, 1912 , in the northern zone of the ocean there was rarely encountered there , dead silence . Moonless night and the stars reflecting in the Atlantic blurred horizon. determine any air movement . smooth as a table above the waterline floating vapors fog, which glided noiselessly barely visible mountain . ripped in 10 seconds the starboard side of the Titanic , the largest liner in the world, flowing through a field of ice at a speed of 22 knots per hour.
Observers Fleet and Lee , standing at this time on the crow’s nest , carefully looked up into the night . Remember the admonition of the second officer Lightoller , would not be surprised of ice , poorly visible in these weather conditions. In an exclusive ship , held the maiden voyage of more than 2,000 passengers on board , was not forgotten by most eccentric cravings . However , to the dismay of observers , no one could remember where it was hidden indispensable instrument as binoculars . Its absence meant that Fleet only at the last moment noticed a huge block of ice just off the bow of the ship . Thanks to his conscious intervention liner made a sudden return , avoiding head-on collision with the mountain , which flashed along the side deck of the Titanic and debris showered the ice would then disappear into the darkness. Among the crackling of falling lumps of ice , passengers heard a sound that usually appears saw cutting metal . Top left by the deadly ” souvenir ” : a series of narrow cracks in the side with a length of up to 90 meters.
Most of the participants felt a violent shock cruise , but no one thought that this is the beginning of a disaster. It was believed that the Titanic ship , which even ” the Lord God does not give advice to sink .” Fairytale landscape, which was built on board, he set the third -class passengers in an excellent mood. Collectively took to the deck, and when I passed infatuation winter landscape , began to play giant icicles . Several sophisticated gentleman indulgently watched ago from the height of the upper deck . they felt safe on the ” unsinkable ” and trusted captain Edward J. Smith, who gave the impression of a dream commander. Meet all the conditions that placed the English shipping company White Star Line . He was for more than 40 years of collision-free service at sea , which is an unbroken string of successes . In marine environments admired his sailing skills and superiors very high opinion of his impeccable manners and socialize with the passengers of the first class. When asked by reporters in New York in 1907 for the safety of the unit, which was commanded , he said among other things : ” … I have never witnessed shipwreck , never alone … never experienced a disaster .” It’s rather peculiar statement should raise concerns passengers flying under the care of Smith , meant as a question mark over his experience .
Meanwhile, many customers White Star Line wanted to travel only those ships , which he led .
Units occupy the unlucky night near Titanic – including Californian – sent to the liner six radio messages about the dangers of ice . At least one of them had to get to the captain’s bridge . According to a bad custom prevailing then on vessels Smith probably underestimated radio messages . Simply changed the course of a few miles south of the beaten track shipping . We’ll never know , why did not reduce the speed of the ship. Chasing the famous Blue Ribbon , a prestigious award for overcoming the fastest Atlantic liner , did not concern after ships of the company – the motto of the White Star Line was a luxury , not a racing pigs. Historians speculate that the current on board the infamous director of the company , J. Bruce Ismay , could cheer for Smith to break the record , despite the express prohibition of the company.
Among the experienced crew of the Titanic , sensitive to every slightest shock , anxiety prevailed . Carpenter Hutchinson quickly made a survey of the ship , without waiting for the orders of the commander. He reported that the liner rapidly taking in water . Before the captain of the Titanic and designer Thomas Andrews finished the inspection , drowning already hold postage .
Andrews , after a hasty reviewing technical plans , he discovered a mistake in the design assumptions . He said that too shallow watertight chamber immediately flood water and consequently overloaded liner will go to the bottom. Meanwhile, the lifeboats could accommodate only 1,178 people. Captain resignation accepted the ” revelations ” constructor , which was tantamount to a death sentence for half the people flowing liner . When Fleet and Lee gave him information about the ship located at a distance of about 12 miles from the Titanic , did nothing . Was only after 45 minutes had to shoot rocket. had not thought about establishing a radio communication with that unit . Five minutes after midnight, the officer gave orders Wilde pictures lifeboats . dramatic news slowly started to reach the passengers. Devastated captain repeated over and over that from now on everyone has to think about himself. In this situation, the officers seized the initiative , trying to speed up the rescue operation . One of the surviving passengers on later recalled that ” Men outlet for women stood firm launches a space , and , seating comfortably lady returned to the deck .” Well, ultimately it was the era of gentlemen.
The helmsman Rowe tried to interest disaster adrift near the mysterious ship . Unsuccessfully fired several rockets. Only 25 minutes after midnight liner radio operator received the first meaningful message . It came with the unit Carpathia , located 58 miles from the Titanic. Perfectly organized, legendary Captain Arthur Rostron today , set off at full speed to the rescue sinking . When I arrived at the scene at about 4 am , he found more than 700 survivors , located on the water in lifeboats . Powerful liner sank half an hour before taking to the ocean floor 1,503 people . Many of them at the moment of death, crowded into the stern , watching in horror as the ground shifts under his feet . Some first-class passengers reportedly left quietly , engrossed in casual conversations . A dozen gentlemen almost to the end of the officers helped in the evacuation of passengers.
The mysterious death of Captain Smith for many years been the cause of disputes among the survivors of seamen . Smoke Senior said that just before the sinking of the ship commander jumped into the water with the child in her arms , and the greaser Hurst claimed that the captain swam in the sea , raising the spirits of the survivors . Historians speculate maritime disasters , however, that just water it washed away into the ocean. In turn, the constructor Andrews reportedly did not even task ! the trouble to wear a life jacket . Only one passenger survived the first class outrageously . He was director of the White Star Line , Bruce Ismay , who jumped into the boat in front of , inter alia, 150 women who were still on board. In those days, such behavior bordered almost to the crime . Ismay did not expect that, on the waterfront in New York Cunard will be waiting for him, Senator William Alden Smith , would soon bring him before the committee investigating the circumstances of the sinking of the Titanic. To the end of his life was accompanied by the Director cowardly glances of contempt. Like Stanley Lord , captain California, this ” mysterious ” ship , which did not provide assistance sinking . Neither American committee Alden Smith , nor the committee of the British Chamber of Commerce , led the investigation in the same case , did not give faith testimony captain. Stanley Lord claimed that between the Titanic and the Californian came third ship and I just had to see this unit on a sinking liner . Senator Smith has shown , however, that close to drowning was a Californian . and although unfortunate commander had many defenders , that they could not explain the motives of his behavior at night of 14 on April 15, 1912 . ignorance Nothing justifies that the captain has shown in the face of tragedy.
Fate did not leave even the Titanic at the bottom of the Atlantic. In 1985, an American oceanographer Robert Ballard located the wreck , lying at the depth of 4,000 meters . When I went there a year later in bathyscaphe, astonished at what he found . The ship , broken into three parts , was completely destroyed by corrosion . Wooden fittings ate organisms living there . Usually at such depths the temperature is low and the enormous pressure that eliminate free oxygen and salinity of the water . Such an environment so inhibits corrosion processes and drives the marine creatures . Unlucky ship went on a sort of microclimate , with extremely high salinity and large oxygen content. Moved by the Ballard made a melancholy note : ” Titanic was unlucky to finish. If sank elsewhere , would probably still in excellent condition . “
26 August 1996 New Yorker George Tulloch decided to violate the tranquility of the underwater tomb. Attempting to extract a fragment of the side of the Titanic ended in failure. Would- exhibit , not seeing the light of day , fell back to the bottom of the ocean.